While the population of the world increases by 1.3 % each year, this rate is 2.3 % for people, who are aged >65 years. Number of subjects, who are aged > 80 years, increases by3.5 % each year.

What is Anti aging?

Procedures of anti-aging, which means overcoming effects of aging, aim

- Reorganizing the hormonal balance by addressing it separately for men and women,

- Renewing skin and collagen tissue cells,

- Improving sexual potency,

- Ensuring early diagnosis and treatment of the age-associated diseases. That is, the purpose is to ensure to LIVE LONG AND HEALTHY.

While the population of the world increases by 1.3 % each year, this rate is 2.3 % for people, who are aged >65 years. Number of subjects, who are aged > 80 years, increases by3.5 % each year.

Italy is the country, where the proportion of elderly population is maximum, followed by Sweden, Greece and Japan. On the contrary, New Guinea is the country, where the proportion of elderly population minimum, i.e., 2.4 %, followed by Cambodia, i.e., 3.5 percent.

Old Age in the World – Expected Lifetime at Birth

Considering expected lifetime at birth, we observe that lifetime expectancy increased from 48-5 years up to 80 years nowadays throughout 100-year period. Andorra is the country, where lifetime expectancy is longest at birth (83.5 years), and it is followed by Japan (81 years vs 68 years in 1960), by Iceland, Canada, Sweden and Switzerland (79 years), by Greece, Southern Cyprus, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, England and Israel (78 years) and by Austria, Belgium, Germany and the United States of America (77 years).

Nazilli is characterized with longest lifetime expectancy in Turkey. On the contrary, minimum lifetime expectancy is observed in Yozgat. Longest and shortest lifetime expectancies are observed in Black Sea Region and Southeast and East Anatolian Regions, respectively.

In Turkey, according to the evaluations in 2010:

- The number of men, aged 65+ years, is 2,331,029, while corresponding figure is 2,996,707 for women, resulting with total >65-year old population of 5,327,736 people.

- Considering Population Registry 2010, where total population of our country is 73,722,988, it is observed that the proportion of the 65+ people to the total population is approximately 7.22 %.

Why do we age?

1. Life energy theory,

2. Free radicals theory and the mitochondrial damage, environmental reasons,

3. Telomere theory,

4. Glycosylation theory,

5. Hormone theory (Androgen, estrogen, growth hormone, DHEA, Melatonin deficiency).

How does the mitochondrial damage occur?

- Free oxygen radicals,

- Alkylation substances,

- Multi-ring aromatic hydrocarbon compounds,

- Exhaust smoke, cigarette smoke, sweeteners, and food additives.

Following factors increase synthesis of free oxygen radicals; chronic distress, UV radiation, X-ray, ozone gas, cigarette, some chemical substances, environmental pollution and heavy exercise.

Vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, Lycopene, Lutein, Coenzyme Q10, Selenium, Zinc, Glutathione, and Carnitine are anti-oxidant substance, which form the defense mechanism against free oxygen radicals.

Vitamin A: Carrot, apricot, spinach, cabbage,

Vitamin C: Orange, grapefruit, lemon,

Vitamin E: Linseed, dried nuts (hazelnut, walnut, almond), sunflower oil,

Selenium: Fish, meat, dried nuts and fruits, legumes,

Zinc: Fish, meat, milk products,

Glutathione: Onion, garlic,

Coenzyme Q10: Fish, dried nuts and fruits, spinach, green beans, garlic,

Lycopene: Tomatoes, water melon, orange,

Lutein: Spinach,

Alpha lipoic acid: Spinach.

Examples of environmental factors:

- Carbonated beverages: Risk of osteoporosis due to the phosphoric acid in the ingredients,

- Decaffeinated coffee: Impairment of oxygenation due to methylene chloride,

- Additives in the pre-prepared foods: Nitrates, sulphides and monosodium glutamates are used. Nitrates are carcinogenic.

- There are pesticides, hormones and antibiotics in meat, white meat and milk products we eat.

- Pesticide risk for fresh fruits.

- Chemical solvent, also known as “perchloroetylene”, is used to remove stains in dry cleaning business and the solvent is carcinogenic for animals.

- Risk for plastic materials: “Vinyl Chloride” content is carcinogenic and it also leads to liver toxicity and risk of premature birth.

- Risk for cosmetics: Formaldehyde in masquerade, thermoplastic resin and lead in lipstick, chemical solvents in eye shadows, asbestos in blusher…

For healthy nutrition every day:

- Fresh vegetables: 3-5 portions every day, half of them are cooked (spinach, cabbage, scallion, etc.), half of them are raw (lettuce, tomatoes, etc.),

- Dried legumes: 1-2 portions every day; haricot beans, chickpeas, lentil, black-eyed peas, etc.

- Whole grain products: Unprocessed whole grains, breads, pasta, cracked wheat, dried nuts, etc.

- Milk products; fat free, protein 100 grams (half of it from vegetables, the other half from white meat or fish), oil (preferably olive oil), fish 2 times a week.

Foods prohibited for healthy nutrition are as follows:

- More than 7 grams of salt per day,

- Processed forms of carbohydrates (white flour and its products, rice, etc.), sugar,

- Processed delicatessen red meat products: Salami, sausage, banger, etc. especially fried in butter,

- Products rich in saturated fats: Fatty red meats, fat-rich milk products, meats, especially grilled red meat,

Sweet and milky products containing fructose (especially genetically modified corn syrup…).

Examples of cuisine which make you live long: 1. Mediterranean Cuisine (Cretan Model)

2. Okinawa (Japan) Island Sample

Example of Mediterranean Cuisine:

- Primarily, fish is consumed (other meats are consumed less frequently),

- Olive oil is held in high esteem,

- Consumption of salads, fruits and vegetables is 4 times higher than the average of Europe,

- Fruits after each meal,

- Consumption of legumes is high; consumption of bread is high,

- Wine.

Example of Okinawa Cuisine:

- Soybean and rice are patrons of the meal,

- Meals rich in fish, vegetables, sea weeds and grasses,

- Total daily calorie intake is less than that of motherland Japan (30 %),

- People drink sake (Rice raki specific to Japanese people containing 12-15 % alcohol – Japanese people believe that it gives a divine power.)

Common features of the Mediterranean and Okinawa Type Cuisines:

- Natural foods are consumed, while processed foods are avoided.

- Olive oil is used in the Mediterranean Cuisine, while soybean oil is used in Okinawa Cuisine.

- Basic source of animal protein is fish in both cuisines.

- There are abundant salads, fruits and vegetables in both cuisines.

- There are drinks in both cuisines: Wine in the Mediterranean Cuisine and Sake in the Okinawa Cuisine.

True combinations of foods according to a research published in the Longevity Magazine;

Salmon and turmeric are proposed in order to avoid diseases,

Extra virgin olive oil and tomatoes are proposed in order to protect against cancers and heart diseases,

Red pepper and black beans are proposed in order to improve immunity,

Eggs and mango are proposed for tight skin,

Broccoli and tomatoes are proposed as protectors against cancers,

Oat flour and strawberries are proposed for cardiac health,

Green tea and lemon are proposed for cardiac health,

Cinnamon and coffee are proposed to give extra energy and to lose weight faster,

Garlic and onion are proposed for cardiac health and to remove arterial plaques and eliminate carcinogenic substances,

Green tea and black pepper are proposed to accelerate catabolism of the fats.

Benefits of exercise:

1. Improvement of balance,

2. Agility,

3. Increased muscle and bone mass,

4. Improvement of mental abilities,

5. Development of immune functions,

6. Alleviation of pain,

7. Decreasing risk of fracture,

8. Facilitating treatment of the obesity, DM, HT and HL.

In a research conducted on nurses (age range: 40 - 65 years) in Harvard University, it was shown that jogging programs reduced risk of CAD. Strenuous exercises (for 1.5 hours, 3 times a week) reduce risk of cardiac problems by 40 percent.

World Health Organization (WHO) recommends physical exercise for at least 150 minutes per week for adults.

What is Hormone Therapy?

It was scientifically demonstrated that deficiencies of human growth hormone (HGH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-SO4) and testosterone, melatonin and estrogen hormones accelerate aging. Particularly, HGH levels drop to one fifth of levels seen during adolescence and therefore, following findings are noted: aging of the cells; weight increase; fat deposition; reduction of muscle mass; weakening of bones; weakening of heart; insomnia; and poor mood and depression.

What is Hormesis?

The body has the ability to repair and restore itself. At old ages, this capacity reduces. Scientists try to develop new methods of treatment, in the light of the view whether we can rejuvenate this ability again. In this end, organism and cells are exposed to short-term stress in order to ensure gene regulation. The ability of the body to stimulate itself and the gene regulation is induced by harmless and small-scale stimulations, and this procedure is known as Hormesis.

There are many methods of Hormesis, including but not limited to heat shock, radiation, exercise, calorie restrictions, aspirin, zinc, turmeric, resveratrol, etc. Thus, it is aimed to ensure stimulation, vitality, motivation and increase in protein synthesis by CHAPERON stimulation in metabolic energy production and use, reduce accumulation of free oxygen radicals, extend lifetime and delay aging.

Some common features are noted at regions, where lifetime is long

- Abundant consumption of organic fresh vegetables and fruits cultivated in the region,

- Source of basic fat acids is fish,

- Whole grains are consumed rather than refined carbohydrates,

- Soy and rice are at the forefront in Bama region,

- Large-scale consumption of olive oil in Crete and Campodimele,

- Vegetable proteins are at the forefront,

- Abundant water is drunk per day,

- They do not give up exercise life-long,

- Protection of mental activities,

- Drinking alcoholic drinks at moderate levels (sake in Okinawa, wine in other regions),

- Living in supportive families,

- Having active social lives,

- Respect for aged people.

For healthy aging:

1. Do not smoke and keep away from environments, where smoking is allowed

2. If you drink alcohol, drink it at moderate levels.

3. Watch out your weight.

4. Exercise.

5. Try to cope with stress.

6. Eat healthy.